In a 12-page statement, he said the investigation was designed to distract Americans from the "disaster" of Democratic-led governance.
It came after the committee held two public hearings accusing Mr Trump of an attempted coup to remain in power.
The panel on Monday detailed evidence of divisions among Trump aides over whether to accept his election loss.
Supporters of Mr Trump stormed Congress on 6 January 2021 in a bid to thwart certification of Joe Biden's election victory. A separate ongoing criminal investigation has led to more than 800 arrests in nearly every state.
"Seventeen months after the events of January 6th, Democrats are unable to offer solutions," Mr Trump, a Republican, said in a statement released through his Save America PAC.
"They are desperate to change the narrative of a failing nation, without even making mention of the havoc and death caused by the Radical Left just months earlier," he continued, alluding to the rioting that erupted during US racial justice protests over the summer of 2020.
"Make no mistake, they control the government. They own this disaster. They are hoping that these hearings will somehow alter their failing prospects."
Mr Trump accused the "unselect pseudo-committee" of treason, referring to the Democratic-led House of Representatives select committee that has been conducting the inquiry for the past year.
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