The regulations suggest increasing unease in Beijing with the growing influence of digital platforms.
The new rules could affect homegrown tech giants like Alibaba, Ant Group and Tencent, as well as food delivery platform Meituan.
The move comes as the EU and the US are also seeking to curb the power of internet giants.
Shares of Alibaba and JD.com headed lower after the proposed regulations were released on Tuesday and the sell-off continued on Wednesday.
The news came as both companies were gearing up for Singles Day, the annual online sale which is their biggest day of the year.
The 22-page draft by the State Administration for Market Regulation (SAMR) will for the first attempt to define anti-competitive behaviour for the tech sector.
The new rules will attempt to stop companies from sharing sensitive consumer data, teaming up to squeeze out smaller rivals and selling at a loss to eliminate competitors.
They would also clamp down on platforms forcing businesses into exclusive arrangements, something which Alibaba has been accused of by merchants and competitors.
The regulations will also take aim at companies that treat customers differently based on their data and spending habits.
The SAMR is seeking reviews and feedback from the public on the antitrust guidelines until the end of the month.
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